World Archaeological Congress


Newsletter: Volume 27 April 2009

Contributions to the next WAC Newsletter due 18th May 2009

Archaeologists Without Borders Workshop

Report on the website of the World Archaeological Congress

Archaeologies of Art Podcast Series Launched!

Call for WAC members to nominate Indigenous people

World Archaeological Congress honors Larry Zimmerman

Dr Andree Rosenfeld

Recommendation on ERA Draft Quality Ranking

WAC-6 Media Releases

WAC-6 Closing Ceremony Speech

Portuguese WAC-6 Media Releases

German WAC-6 Media Releases

Spanish WAC-6 Media Releases

Turkish WAC-6 Media Releases

Czech. WAC-6 Media Release on Iran



Introduction - Programme - Accommodation - Protocol - Tourism - Travel To Venue - Map Of Auckland - Alt Registraion


He kainga no te ururoa, te moana The ocean is the home of the shark, and
He kainga no te kereru, te ngahere the forest is the home of the wood pigeon.

This proverb has many meanings one of which is that respect should be accorded to those whose domain you enter.

Ko Maungakiekie te maunga Maungakiekie is the mountain
Ko Waitemata te moana Waitemata the sea
Ko Ngäti Whatua te iwi Ngäti Whatua the people/tribe (of Auckland)
Ko Waipapa te marae Waipapa the University Marae
Ko Täne-nui-a-rangi te wharenui Täne-nui-a-rangi the whare
Ko Reipae te wharekai Reipae the wharekai



This handout is a brief guide to the procedure for attending a powhiri at Waipapa Marae. The kawa can vary from place to place but for this marae the following guide will give you some idea of what to expect.

It should be noted that walking on to the marae is a time of remembrance, sadness and showing of respect. The manuhiri often walk forward slowly with their head bowed, some even shed tears for those who have died. So when called on to the marae it is appropriate to be silent and reverent.

1. Assemble outside the gate and organise kaikorero, koha and kaiwhakahokia i te karanga (the person who will return/answer the call from the home people). A koha is a gift to the people you are visiting, usually this is money, placed into an envelope and given to your speakers.

2. Move to the gate - women in the front, men at the back (and sides). It is important that you keep together, normally in an arrow formation with your caller in the front. Usually the elder women of your group will stand at the front. Stay together as a group when moving forward.

3. When the kaikaranga for the tangata whenua gives her call, your ope proceed to walk forward slowly on to the Marae atea. It is polite to be silent during the powhiri. Its important to stay close together as a group when walking on to the marae - so if you have children they should be at your side.

4. The kaiwhakahoki i te karanga for the manuhiri will reply. She/he is at the front (or sometimes to the sides) of the group and everyone stays behind or close by. The group walks slowly forward and stops about halfway between the gate and the wharenui. At this point the group will stop for one to two minutes (at a tangihanga this stop is often much longer).

5. The manuhiri starts walking forward and the kaikaranga for the tangata whenua will begin their second call.

6. The call is answered by the kaiwhakahokia i te karanga for the manuhiri. The group walks on to the porch of the house where they remove their shoes. They enter the house and go to the right side of the house. They then walk along the right hand side wall and remain standing. Seating will be provided for your speakers on the right hand side (all others will be seated behind them on the floor or on mattresses). It is correct to remain standing until everyone is assembled inside and until you are asked to be seated by the tangata whenua.

7. Once seated the speeches begin (prior to this though, a prayer of thanks is often given). As each speech is made, it is followed with a waiata. The manuhiri speakers follow with their speeches and waiata.

8. The koha is (usually) placed on the ground or handed to a representative of the tangata whenua by the last speaker before the final waiata. At the end of the speeches the tangata whenua will indicate to the manuhiri to come forward to shake hands and to hongi.

9. The hongi is incorrectly translated as rubbing noses. The hongi has special significance, including the mixing of the breath and the wairua. Often the hongi is only performed by the kaikorero and kaumatua of your group. The nose and then the forehead are pressed against the other persons nose and forehead once (in other parts of New Zealand it is two presses of the nose and forehead).

10. The formal part of the Powhiri finishes once the person has had something to drink and eat (there are cultural reasons for this). You are now tangata whenua and Waipapa is your marae. You will be called into the wharekai where a karakia is always said before the eating of a meal. It is polite to help in the kitchen. Don't ask those in the kitchen if they need help as they will say no, just help and they will greatly appreciate it. After a cup of tea you will reassemble in the house for further discussion, debate or instruction.

Points to Remember


A great deal of respect is accorded to people who are speaking so there are some rules that are important to know.

• There are no restrictions on women to speak within the wharenui but there are appropriate places and times. So always check prior to standing or until someone has indicated.

• It is not polite to speak when others are speaking. No matter how much you disagree with a speaker, you must wait until they have finished talking completely.

• Never walk in front of a speaker. If you really are desperate then walk behind them or bend down if walking in front of them.


Hongi - Pressing of nose and forehead in greeting [do not close your eyes]
Kaikaranga - the woman/women "caller" (tangata whenua side) who has the honour of calling on the visitors
Kaikorero - The speaker
kaiwhakahoki i te karanga - The woman/man "caller" (manuhiri side) who has the honour of returning the call to the tangata whenua
Karanga - A call
Karakia - A prayer
Kaumatua - Elder(s) [inclusive of both male and female]
Kawa - Protocols, rules
Koha- A gift/donation [a gesture of appreciation]
Manuhiri - Visiting group
Marae - Whole complex, grounds and buildings
Marae atea - Ground directly in front of the wharenui [forecourt of the marae]
Ope - Group
Powhiri - Ceremony of welcome
Tangata whenua - Home people [people of the marae]
Tangihanga - Bereavement/funeral
Waiata - Song
Wairua - Spirit
Wharenui - Meeting house
Wharekai - Dining hall and/or kitchen